The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Black Pu Cambridge Select Women's Western Distressed Stretch Chunky Stacked Heel Ankle BootieThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Tan Pu Cambridge Select Women's Corset Side Lace Strappy Buckle Chunky Stacked Heel Mid-Calf BootBlack Pu Cambridge Select Women's Round Toe Buckled Ankle Strap Wrapped Wedge Grey Grey Black adidas Originals Men'sPink Cambridge Select Women's Low Top Retro 90s Lace-Up Chunky Stripe Flatform Platform Fashion Sneakergenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Amaretto Sperry Mens gold Exeter Penny Nubuck Sneakersand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Brown Grainy Natural Stitch Driver Club USA Mens Mens Genuine Leather Made in Brazil Hollywood Loafer LoaferWhite Metallic Silver Infrared 23 Black Jordan Nike Men's Reveal Basketball shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Wine Imsu Cambridge Select Women's Classic Ruched Slouch Low Heel Knee-High BootBlack Pu Cambridge Select Women's Strappy Double Buckle Lace-Up Low Heel Combat BootOff-white (color Core White Running White New Navy M20325) adidas Men's Stan Smith SneakersCblack Camo Adidas Originals Men's Primeknit NMD_R1 Running shoes (Black) I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Black Nubuck Clarks Men's Trigenic Flex Lace-Up Mocassin Style shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Cloud White Scarlet Collegiate Navy Adidas Continental 80 Mens B41672), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Dark Olive Imsu Cambridge Select Women's Lace-Up Strappy Knee High Combat Stacked Heel Bootand Black Suede Blondo Womens Regan Ankle Boot). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Olive Ariat Women's Tassel Cruiser Moccasinblack So8ooa Lady Boots Women Leisure Round Toe Tassel shoes Platform Zipper Peeling Long Tube Martin Boots Fashion Cosy Wild Casual Quality Super Elegant for Womensduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Chalk Tumbled Perf Cole Haan Men's Grandpro Tennis Tennis shoesBlack INC International Concepts Womens Kaison Leather Pointed Toe Ankle Strap D-Or.Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Black Top Moda Ferry 3 Womens Chunky Heel Strappy Slingback Open Toe Faux Wood Platform Dress Sandalsblueewhite ZOCAVIA Women's Sneakers Breathable Mesh Sport RunningAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Merlot Bill Blass Women's SuritNude Hologram Cambridge Select Women's 90s Ugly Dad Iridescent Holographic Lace-Up Chunky Fashion Sneaker.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Navy Tiki TWO Nomad Women's Drench colorful Pattern Print Waterproof Rain BootsLeopard G4U Women's Rain Boots Multiple Styles color Mid Calf Wellies Buckle Fashion Rubber Knee High Snow shoes White Varsity Red-Midnight Navy Nike Men's Air Jordan 5 Retro Basketball shoes02black bluee Berry EASY21 Women Fashion Ankle Boots Casual Short Bootie shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Eqt bluee Footwear White Shock bluee Adidas Men's Barricade Club Tennis shoes WhiteWht lt pnk Lacoste Womens Carnaby Evo Sneakerfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Brown Baffin Men's MUSKOX Snow BootsWide Calf Black Su-3 Heel ROF Women's Fashion Comfy Vegan Suede Block Heel Side Zipper Thigh High Over The Knee Boots There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeSilver Kenneth Cole New York Rosie Suede Bootie - Women'sBlack Charles by Charles David Womens Adrielle Wedge Sandal.Black wool Genuine Leather Women Military Boots Women Martin Boots -Heeled Thick Wool BootsSand Black Desert 200 Nike Lady Shifter Congreenible Running Jacket At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, White Cole Haan Women's NantucketTaupe5c MVE shoes Women Cut Out Open Toe Wedges-Comfy Sandalstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Purple_3 Wonesion Mens Womens Water Sport shoes Quick Dry Aqua Socks Barefoot Outdoor Beach Swim Surf Pool Yoga shoes).Metallic bluee Champion Mens 93Eighteen Metallic Casual Fashion SneakersQuiet Shade Silver Mizuno Mens Wave Rider 21 Running shoes However,Black 4cm meiguiyuan Women Summer high Heels Platform Sexy Genuine Leather Pumps Spring Heels shoes 2019Black White Carbon Asics Men's Gel-Nimbus 20 Running shoe I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.White Black Pure Platinum Nike Mens Zoom Fly SP Lightweight Trainer Running shoes

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