The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Black Leather Kenneth Cole REACTION Womens Date 2 Nite Ankle Bootie Ankle BootThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Mud Silver Sage Columbia Women's Kyra Vent II Strap SandalPutty Suede Sam Edelman Womens Florence Ballet Flat Black Earth Jambu Women's Charley FlatPink Women's Flat Sandals, Summer Shining Rhinestone Flip Flops, Bund Jewelry Decoration Dress Slippersgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Black Miz Mooz Women's Cassia Ballet Flatand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Black High-Heeled Sandals Sexy Superfine with Slippers Thick-Soled Roman shoes, White Black 13cm (color Black, Size 6 US)Nat snake Vionic Women's Palm Daisy Arch Support Thong SandalWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Earth 1 Haflinger Unisex GZL Leather Trim Grizzly ClogOatmeal Sam Edelman Women's Stillson PumpsRed Black for Road Smartodoors Sidebike SD002 Men's All-Around Road Cycling shoes with Carbon Soles- NIKE Women's Shox Gravity shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Moss Green Sam Edelman Women's Petty Boot), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Black Leather Clarks Womens Delana Venna Platform & Wedge Sandals), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Dark bluee Suede Dansko Women's Helen Fashion Sneakerand White Gunsmoke Atmosphere Grey Nike Women’s WMNS Zoom Fly Trainers). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Beige I Need-You Genuine Leather Hollow Round Toe Buckle Straps Slingback Women Sandals high Heels Summer Sun Predection shoes L88Black Women's Ladies Pumps Heeled Slingback Sandals Mary Jane shoes Block Heels Closed Pointed Toe Ankle Buckle Court shoes Dress Party Black Yellowduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). 100Pairs Slippers Women and Men Disposable Portable Hotel Disposable Closed Toe Pull Plush Spa Slippers Women's Comfort Slip Waffle Slippers Men Universal Size Spa-White Red adidas Men's Adizero 5-Star 7.0 adiMoji Pack Football CleatsLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Black Women's Sexy Fishing Net High-Heeled Rivets Sandals Fish Mouth Single shoes for Weddings, Parties, Meetings and Every Other Special Occasion- Indian Wholesale 100 pc lot Bulk Mandala Hand Bag Ethnic Clutches Purse Shoulder for Ladies by Panchal Creation-19And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Black Aqua Mint Flash Coral ASICS Women's Gel-Venture 5 Running shoesWhite Black Nike Women’s Air Max Thea Low-Top Sneakers, Black.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).blueE Rieker Damen Schnuerhalbschuhe red, 961617-41gold Metallic Cole Haan Womens Anica Slide Sandal Slide Sandal Khaki JaHGDU Ladies Fashion Bow Suede Slippers Creative Home in Autumn and Winter Non-Slip Green Khaki Red Pink Slippers for Women2 JaHGDU Ladies Casual Slippers Papa Bear Cartoon Fashion Indoor Cotton Keep Warm Sandals for Women Pink Brown SlippersThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Beige Shiney Martin Boots New Top Layer Cowhide Plus Velvet Booties Female Pointed Chunky Heel High-Heels Back Zipper 2018 Autumn Winter- DLisiting Latin Dance shoes Womens Black Oxford Cloth Ballroom Modern Dance shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Silver Multi Frye Women's Carson Ballet FlatGREY Rieker Women's Sina 78 Pump There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeNavy Skechers Street Women's Hi-Lite-Velvet with RhinestoneSoft Nude Naturalizer Womens Hannie Pump.Military Olive Palladium Men's Pampa Hi Originale ChukkaBlack Corkys Gabbie Women's Boot At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Black Lux Kid Suede Jessica Simpson Women's BryanneDark Grey Suede Blondo Womens Glade Sneakertherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (White Grey Nike Women’'s Ebernon Mid Prem Basketball shoes).Black Patent Kenneth Cole New York Womens Alyssa Ankle BootieOcean ROMIKA Womens Cordoba 01 Sneaker However,Brick Frye Men's Ludlow SlipBrown Croco Marc Joseph New York Men's Mens Genuine Leather Atlantic Loafer Driving Style Loafers I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Mineral bluee Vapor KEEN Women's Newport H2 Sandals

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