The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. FANTURE Women's Slipper Micro Suede Faux Fur Lined Indoor & Outdoor Moccasins Slip OnThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Gooding life Women Pumps High Heels Pointed Toe Leopard Women Heels shoes Elegant Zebra Print Office Ladies shoesAugust Jim Women Loafers shoes,Autumn Flats Platform Slip On Casual Moccasins shoes Genepeg Womans Sandals Summer Flowers Patent Leather Cross Strap High Heels Party shoesSoludos Womens Knotted Velvet Mule Mulegenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Women's High Top Canvas shoes Trainers Sneakers Casual Comfort shoes Beautiful Deer Printsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Drew Toby Women Pumps Elegant Super High Heel Shallow Pointed-Toe Bow Single shoesHigh Heels Sandals Night Club Bar Party Office Ladies Women Bride Girls 4 Season shoes Multicolor Stiletto Heel Blink shoes,White,EU37We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,InterestPrint Women Basketball Running shoes Lightweight Sports SneakersExotic Bird PrintsJeff Tribble Women Boots High Heels Platform Buckle Zipper Rivets Lace Up Leather Boots Size 34-43MAYPIE Women's Fashion Round Toe High Heel Zipper Mid Calf BootsWomen's Slide Sandal Thong Slip On Flip Flop Toe Loop Cork Buckle Faux Leather Beach Casual Platform Flat shoes GR200 I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. August Jim Womens Faux Suede Casual Pointed Toe Ballet Comfort Soft Slip On Flats shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Telic Unisex Slide Jelly Sandal), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Converse Women's Chuck Taylor Print Oxford shoes Black Multi colordand Women Boots, Ladies Autumn Winter Plus Velvet to Keep Warm shoes Fashion Ankle Solid Martin shoes Short Outdoor shoes Soft Casual Sports Boots). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Hoxekle Women Boots Zipper Winter Boots Women Fashion Ankle Snow Boots Plush Warm Women shoesHigh heel show The Korean Version of The 2017 New Summer Fashion Sequins Stars Toe Platform Sandals Woman Head Word Buckle shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Women Summer Flat Sandals Hollow Plastic Beach shoes Square Buckle Comfortable Crystal shoesK-Swiss Women's Court Casper SDE TrainersLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Kikiva Womens Transparent Pointed Toe Ankle Boot High Heels Stiletto BootsCYBLING Women High Heel Slide Sandals Embroidered Slip On Peep Toe Wedge Platform Summer SlippersAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Get-in Mules shoes Women Dress Slippers Ladies Slides Fashion Buckle Slippers Mules Elegant shoesWalking Cradles Womens Sophia Dress Pump.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Skechers Womens You Define-Aurora Woven Lightweight Fashion SneakersSummer-lavender Women Knee Snow Boots Metal Buckle Low Heel Boots Thick Fur shoes Winter Women shoes Zee Alexis Women's Danielle SneakerQupid Proud-09 Cuff Slouchy Flat BootThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Mesh Walking Run shoes Casual Women Men Sport Outdoor Slip On Wide Width Ultra Light Breathable Weaving Fitness Travel Shopping Mountain Climbing shoesAIYOUMEI Women's Pointed Toe shoes Slip on Pumps Block Heelfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.MERUMOTE Women's Brown Rivets Studs Dress Summer Block Heeled Sandals Brown 7USMINIKATA Suede Short Boots Wedges Low Zipper Middle Calf Boots Casual shoes Martin Boots There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeMarch for our lives accessories Womens Breathable Plimsolls WomenWomens Football Soccer Fashion Plimsolls.AllhqFashion Women's Round Closed Toe High-Heels Frosted High top Solid BootsWomen's Casual Ankle Boots Winter Plus Velvet Snow Booties Lace-up Flats Cotton shoes Martin Boots At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Womens Cute Laser Cat-01 Fashion Canvas SneakersSkull paint butterfly triangle women fashion canvas shoes for womentherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Skechers Womens Side Street - Notebook).Navy bluee Fashion Fabric HandbagDailyshoes Women's Slouchy Mid Calf Strappy Boots Ankle Top Straps - 2 Heel Fashion Boots However,CERLYRUAN Whales with Fish Mesh Cloth Breathable Woven Leather Insole Running shoes for WomenSummer Sandals Women Multicolor Flower Slides Fashion Ladies Party Wedding High Heels Pumps shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.WeenFashion Women's Microfibre Low-Heels Round-Toe Boots with Square Heels and Zippers

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