The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Nine West Women's Jara Leather BootThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Cole Haan Womens Leela Grand Riding BootCorkys Footwear Women's Carley Wedge Leather Sandal Adidas Women's Pureboost Xpose, Midnight Grey CORE bluee Easy blueeBadgley Mischka Women's Poloma D'Orsay Pumpgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Berghaus FellMaster GTX Womens Tech Walking Bootsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Sugar Womens SGR-Jolla Combat BootNike Mens Free Run 2 EXT Breathable Workout Running shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

black Giardini shoes Woman Sneakers P907520D 115

I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Stetson Womens Blake Western BootSnow Boots Fur Inner Heightening Warm Plus Velvet Thickening Straps Platform Boots Flat Snow Boots Casual Boots Casual Walking shoes shoes & Handbags (color White, Size 38)Gentle Souls Women's Christa Open Toe BlockSkechers Women's Go mini Flex - Speedy Casual shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Australia Luxe Collective Women's Yael Boot), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Mizuno Women's Wave Hayate 3 (W) Trail Running shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Ellen Tracy Women's Fig Flatand [Saphir black] Deluxe High Shine set Large 4900123000 neutral black, without neutral size). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Oxmox 400 Women's Italian Low Mid Heel Pointy Toe Dressy shoesAquatalia Womens Vina Suede Ankle Bootduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Bule Moocow BCOW Woman shoes with a Pointed,Black Mouth Side Buckle Silk Thick with Work shoesDavid Tate Women's Nelly Pink 8 M USLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Leather shoes 2018 Autumn and Winter New Women's shoes Stiletto High Heel Black Short Boots Sexy Fashion Rhinestones Winter shoes Pattern Sexy High Heels (color Multi-colord, Size 33)Liu Jo Women's MCBI37936 Black Leather SneakersAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Ted Baker Women's Albace Dress SandalFlora Pointy Toe Mary Jane Block Heel Vegan Pump Comfortable Insole Padded Arch Support (New Fall).

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Propet Women's Roni Slide Sandal CamelClarks Women's Glick Willa Chukka Boot Adidas NEO Men's 10K Lifestyle Runner Sneaker, bluee White Collegiate Navy, 7.5 M USSpring Step Women's Yofie Leather BootieThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Franco Sarto Womens Dakota Ankle BootSigerson Morrison Women's Jeanie Pumpfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Soludos Women's Woven Fisherman SandalsWhite Mountain Women's Headsail Patent Leather Boat shoes in Charcoal (7M) There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placePikolinos Women's Margarita Wedge SandalAriat Kids' Desert Holly Western Cowboy Boot, Coyote Brown, 5 M US Big Kid.Alegria Women's, Seville Slip on Clogs Black 3.7 MMizuno Wave Kien Women's Trail Running shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, David Tate Bellissima Women's SandalDiamant Womens 141-087-084, Black Python Suede, 2 1 2 (6.5 cm) Latin Heeltherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Frye Womens Carly Stud Short Engineer Boot).NEW BALANCE U420 SIZE 4 USAquatalia Womens Pasha Snake Print Pump However,El Naturalista Womens N914 Angkor BootMIZUTORI Japanese Geta Style Black & Shiny Sandals with White KAKISHIBU Pattern I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Walking Cradles Women& 39;s Kerry White Leather 13 WW US

Nike Trainers shoes Mens Mercurial Miracle Ii Fg orange Bar III Marli Block-Heel Shooties

Tory Burch Women's Miller Flat Thong Flip Flops Bright Tropical bluee Leather