The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Red Tape ORRIN Mens Suede Brogue Desert shoes Dark BrownThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Converse Ct Vint Twil Zp, Unisex Adults’ SneakersAmblers Safety Mens FS132 Pull on Safety Boot Y-H Men's Casual shoes Spring Fall Microfiber Student Comfort Sneakers Stylish Personality Deck shoes Travel shoes White Black,White,42Adidas LA Trainer, Unisex Kids' Running shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, CATEDOT Men’s shoes Lace up Summer Lightweight Casual Fashion leather shoes Breathable (color orange, Size 5UK)and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. FuweiEncore 2018 Men's Retro Brush color Round Toe Lace Flat Business Oxford Casual Formal shoes (color Brown, Size 42 EU) (color Khaki, Size 39 EU)Easy Go Shopping Leisure Driving Loafers For Men Oxfords Casual Flat Penny shoes Leather Upper Slip On Walking Boat shoes Lightweight Cricket shoes (color Brown, Size 7.5 UK)We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Propet Men's Dixon Walking shoesSoletec Men's SuperIron Steel Toe EH Industrial and Construction shoes Puncture Proof Real LeatherNew Balance Men's Fresh Foam SportGLSHI Men Breathable Hi-Top Sneakers 2017 Autumn New Flat shoes Fashion Buckle Casual shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Casual shoes For Men Soft Comfortable Fabric Upper Lightweight Breathable Running Sneakers Anti-slip Flat Lace Up Round Toe shoes Cricket shoes (color Beige, Size 8.5 UK)), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Superga Unisex Adults' 2832 Cotmetw Low-Top Sneakers), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, NTX Men's shoes Casual Synthetic Slip-on Black bluee Green Red Royal bluee 1 2 Navyand ZHRUI Men Casual shoes Spring Flats Lace up Male Suede Oxfords Leather shoes (color Brown, Size 6.5=40 EU)). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Converse All Star M9696 Ox Spec Mens Trainers SS12Outdoor combat boots Men's wear-resistant military non-slip tactical bootsduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Easy Go Shopping Athletic shoes for Men Sports shoes Lace Up Style Mesh Material color Round Toe Rubber+MD Outsole Cricket shoes (color Black, Size 9.5 UK)Adidas Unisex Kids' Superstar Foundation Cf C Multisport Indoor shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Fad-J Snow Boots Men, Winter Warm Plus Velvet Large Size Cotton shoes, Short Tube Waterproof Non-Slip High Help Outdoor Cotton Boots,Black,432018 Men's shoes, Spring Fall Mesh Running shoes,Men's Low-Top Sneakers,Comfort Breathable Sneakers,Casual Travel Trainers shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?ALDO Men's KAENAWIEL Slide Sandal, Black, 9 D USZHRUI Men Winter Outdoor Hiking shoes Fur Lined Anti-Collision Hunting Sneakers Man Anti-Skid Tourism Mountain shoes (color Brown, Size 7UK=41 EU).

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Yingsssq Unisex PU non-slip waterproof indoor slippers household shoes black bluee (color Black, Size 44)ZHRUI Men's Suede Leather Snow Boots Winter High Help Plus Velvet Warm Non-Slip Cotton shoes Outdoor (color Black, Size EU39 UK5.5) Easy Go Shopping Driving Loafer For Men Boat Moccasins Slip On OX Leather Metal Decoration Classic Solid color Low Top Cricket shoes (color Black, Size 8.5 UK)JCB Rock B Black Suede & Mesh Safety Hiker with Steel Midsole, Mens, Size 7The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: L-X Unisex Adults Flip Flops Sandal Anti Slip Lightweight Rubber Printed Slipper Summer Leisure Large Size Non Slip Beach Sandals and Slippers, white, 43EUAmblers Safety FS84 Antistatic Lace up Safety Bootfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Geox Men's men Sandal Strada C Ankle StrapGAOLIXIA Men's Leather Flip-Flops Summer Fashion Sandals Outdoor Slippers Beach shoes Casual shoes Large Size 38-48 There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeshoes ZHANGRONG- Walking Sandals Sport Hiking Summer (color A, Size EU42 UK8.5 CN43)Mens Elegant Buckle Loafers Driving Loafer Round Toe Business Casual shoes for Men Boat Moccasins Slip on Style OX Leather Delicate Pattern shoes Opening Fashion Moccasin Slippers.ZHRUI Men Canvas shoes Round Toe Shallow Sewing Man Casual Soft Fashion Sneakers (color Black, Size 9.5=44 EU)JIALUN-shoes British Brogue Oxfords for Men Low Buxom Heel Patent Leather Vamp Decor with Chain shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, ZHRUI Mens Outdoor Hiking Boots Anti-Skid Breathable Camping shoes Waterproof Trekking Boots for Men (color Black, Size 9.5 UK)Batman Gear Unisex DEK shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Lotto Solista 700 II FG Yellow Black F23A).Reebok Men's Speedlux 3.0 Running shoesZHRUI Men Plush Warm Winter shoes Anti skidding Outdoor High Top Hiking Trainers (color Fur Brown, Size 7.5 UK) However,ZHRUI Men Sneakers Casual shoes Flats Lace up Leather shoes Male (color S1768 Black, Size 8=42 EU)Xiaojuan-boots, Men's Fashion Casual Convenient Super Light Ankle Boots Winter Faux Fleece Inside High Top Boot(Conventional Optional) I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.QIDI Casual shoes Male Microfiber Spring Autumn Flat Non-slip Wear Resistant Fitness shoes (color T-4, Size EU42 UK8.5)

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