The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Dunlop Unisex Adults’ C762933 S5 Purofort+ Unlined Rubber Boots Long Shaft Boots & BooteesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Survêtement baby adidas Zebra SSTPuma Men's Carson 2 X Knit.Peacot Road Running shoes Grey Flamingos' Life Oslo Red Stripes - Trainers, UnisexMen's shoes Feifei Spring and Autumn Leisure Breathable Leather shoes 3 colors (color Brown, Size EU39 UK6.5 CN40)generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Puma Mens Sneaker Match 74 Lthr 358673 02 Blackand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Adidas Originals Kids' Superstar Foundation J Running shoesY-H Mens Casual shoes, Spring Fall Mens Casual Business shoes, Soft Sole Slip-Ons Driving shoes, Loafers & Slip-Ons Cycling shoes,bluee,38We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,U.S. Polo Wily Men's Sneakers GreyY-H Men's shoes,2019 New Outdoor Hiking shoes,Student Slip-Ons Training shoes Travel shoes Climbing Sneakers,White,43Men's shoes Lace Up Block Leather Low Heel Mid Calf Combat Boots Run A Size LargerSports & Outdoor Sandals Sandals Velcro Outdoor Slippers Non-Slip Sports Sandals Breathable Casual Roman shoes Summer Men's Beach shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. XUE 2018 New Men's shoes Microfiber Spring Fall Comfort Athletic shoes Loafers & Slip-ONS Driving shoes Walking shoes for Outdoor Formal Business Work), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. XIE Men's Leather Sandals Open Toe Workout shoes summer Fisherman's shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Lianaiec Men's boots Chelsea Boots Leather Winter Men'S Boots Martin Boots 45 Xl 46 Boots Wild 47 Black Plus Cottonand Lemigo Men's Boots Black Black). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Easy Go Shopping Athletic shoes for Men Sports shoes Lace Up OX Leather Simple Solid color with Low Top Cricket shoesSkechers Braver Gonsor, Men’s Trainersduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). ASICS golden Spark Running shoes Canvas Trainers Sneakers Sport Pumps in RedRoamers Moccasin Boat shoes Leather Lined Lightweight Slip On Mens Leisure Trainers (UK 6 EU 40, Navy)Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Amblers Safety FS12C Composite Black 13Bugatti Men's 321345302200 Classic BootsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Adidas Response Approach Str Mens Tennis Sneakers shoes-white-9.5Boxfresh Men's's Losium Sh Slub SDE NVY Trainers.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).TBS Men's Scoress Flip FlopsAdidas Men's X 17.3 Fg American Football shoes Mens Leather Ankle Boots Warm Casual shoes Lace-Up Round Toe Sneakers Fur Lined Outdoor Short Snow BootsSELCNG Hiking shoes Outdoor mesh Non-Slip wear-Resistant Breathable Cross-Country Walking shoes-green-45The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Hiking shoes Men Lightweight Walking shoes Outdoor Trekking Autumn Winter Leather Outdoor wear-Resistant Travel shoesOutdoor Military Boots Combat Boots Male Commando Outdoor Desert Tactical Boots Hiking shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Mizuno - Five-a-Side Football shoes Fortuna 4 As White 36832Knightsbridge 7 Hole Boots Dark Creations Combat Boots UK Gothic Boots 37-46 There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeDC - Mens Anvil Se Low Top shoesZHRUI Mens Buckle shoes Cow Leather Waterproof Breathable Non Slip Casual Loafers (color Black, Size UK 10).GTYMFH Spring and Summer Leather shoes Leather Men Korean Casual shoes Men's shoesAutumn And Winter, New, Men, shoes, Leather, Lace, Leisure, Single shoes, Driving shoes, Work shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Jack & Jones Men's Jfwhoughton Textile Anthracite Low-Top SneakersJiang-ZX Men's shoes,Leather Men's shoes Business Non-slip Waterproof Casual shoes One Foot Peas shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (shoes Men's spring and summer lock-free cycling, Outdoor leisure road bike, Outdoor sports hiking, Suitable for walking fishing tourism).Men's Leather Driving shoes, Non-Slip Oxford shoesMEMIND Men Leisure Leather shoes Student Small Leather shoes Male British Style Leisure Single shoes Big Head Low Help Tooling shoes However,Merrell Terramorph Mens Suede Leather Material Walking shoes BoulderDrakes Pride Mens Nova Lightweight Lawn Bowls shoes White Silver I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.JIALUN-Sandals Comfortable Men's Flat Heel Hollow Solid color Closed Toe Sandals Slip On shoes

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