The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Melluso - Decollette Platino - D074PLATINOThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Aerosoles A2 by Womens at Long LastMen's Business shoes Tooling Leather Crocodile Side Zipper shoes ARIAT Women's Round Up Square Toe Western BootCotswold Womens Deerhurst Waterproof Boot Black Size UK 8 EU 42generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Aquatalia Womens Shaw Suede Bootie Blackand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. MedzRE Men's Leather Wingtip Formal Leisure Ankle High shoesSAN CRISPINO Women's 150WHITE Silver Leather SandalsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Hoxekle Ankle Boots for Women Suede Autumn Winter Boots Lace Up Round Toe Fashion Platform shoes WomanHoxekle Fashion Side Zipper Women Boots Winter Over Knee Long Boots Patchwork Suede Low Heel Boot Round Toe shoesThe Hot Rock-sandals Design Women High Heels Square Toe Rivets Studded Wedding Dress shoes Woman Fringed Stiletto Valentine shoesNike Dri-FIT Pro Combat Core Boys Thermal Longsleeve Shirt I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Elegant Retro Women Suede Ankle Boots High Heels Pointed Toe Zip Comfort Casual shoes Woman Ladies Warm), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. G.H. Bass & Co. Men's Whitford), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, THE NORTH FACE Women's Single-Track Performance Running shoesand Carrucci Men's Black Genuine Leather Slip-On Monk Straps Loafer shoes KS099-3003.). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Official Puma Wired Training shoes Womens Fitness Gym Workout Trainers Sneakers FootwearWomen Booties Leather Martin Boots Winter Personality Lace-UP Round Head Thick Heel Mid Heel Knight Boots Ladies Fashion Ankle Boots (color B, Size 38)during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Nine Seven Genuine Leather Women's Round Toe Chunky Heel Handmade Wide Calf Over The Knee BootsMALìPARMI Women's SE0178PINK Pink Fabric EspadrillesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Taryn pink Womens Noelle Pumpcolorful Dream- Big Size Men Moccasins Luxury Brand Loafers Genuine Leather Footwear Casual Men shoes Designer Sneakers Male Black shoes AdultAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Reebok Men's Royal Heredis Walking shoes, Black Black, 5.5 M USEcco Men's Harold Derby Chukka Boot.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Teva Women's Arrowood 2 Knit SneakerNike Tech Trainer Mens Aq4775-140 Swims Penny Lux Loafer Driver shoes in Grey & AlloyComfortabel Damen Ballerinas brown, 730377-2The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Cole Haan Womens Leah Round Toe Ankle Fashion BootsEnglish Laundry Mens Fowler Bootfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Pro Dancer Women silverina Tango Dance shoes Sandals Salsa shoes High Heel Leather Sole SilverRockfish Mens Neoprene Lined Groundhog Wellington Boots (12 US) (Black) There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeWomen's Platform shoes Fashion Leather shoes Low-Top Sneakers Rhinestone Round Head Lace Up Loafers Walking shoes,White,35Vespa Unisex Adults' Carnaby Hi-Top Trainers.Nike Men's Air Berwuda Black Black Black Running shoes 11.5 Men USAdidas Originals Lucas Premiere shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, GLOBALWIN Women's Black Winter Snow Boots 9MAusland Men's Moccasins, Slip-On Loafers, Casual shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (COLUMBIA Womens Canyon Point MID Waterproof Boots Marsala RED Kettle (UK6 EU39 US8)).ARA Women's Larissa Flat SandalJA VIE Fashion Designer shoes for Women Jelly Flats Tip for Every Day Wear Driving Walking Traveling However,Caldene Womens Ladies Ashford Long Riding BootsNewstarshop Men Flat Chelsea Boot Imported Italian Leather Square Toe Dress Boots Cap Toe Stretch Leather Boots I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Free People Womens Wrap Around Heel Boot Leather Closed Toe Ankle Fashion Boots

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